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PORPHYRIA FACTS: PSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS - ANXIETY



Anxiety is characterized chronic, exaggerated worry and tension.

Such anxiety is usually unfounded or much more severe than the normal
anxiety most people experience.

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Anxiety is the unpleasant emotional state consisting of psychophysiological
responses to anticipation of unreal or imagined danger, ostensibly resulting from
unrecognised intrapsychic conflict.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
During intense periods of anxiety a porphyria patient can experience increased
pulse, and profused sweating.

SOURCE:
Robert JOhnson MD
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Anxiety, can be especially severe during acute attacks.

SOURCE:
"The Porphyrias"
Karl E. Anderson M.D.
HEPATOLOGY:
A Textbook of Liver Disease
W.B. Saunders Company
Philadephia 1996
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is common during the acute
attack and is reflected in various mental symptoms such as anxiety.

SOURCE:
Acute Porphyrias: Pathogenesis of
Neurological Manifestations
Urs. A Meyers M.D. et. al.
Seminars in Liver Disease
Vol. 18, Number 1
January 1998
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++



Physiological concomitants include increased heart rate [tachycardia], altered
respiration rate, sweating, trembling, weakness and fatigue, psychological
concomitants include feelings of impending danger, powerlessness, fear,
apprehension and tension.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric Division
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Agitation will often co-exist with anxiety during episodes of acute porphyria.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Anxiety is common during the acute attack and is reflected in various mental
symptoms presented.

SOURCE:
Acute Porphyrias: Pathogenesis of
Neurological Manifestations
Urs. A Meyers M.D. et. al.
Seminars in Liver Disease
Vol. 18, Number 1
J anuary 1998
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
During acute attacks psychiatric manifestations in acute porphyrias include
anxiety, and agitation.

Mental confusion is commonly present.

SOURCE:
Porphyria: reexamination of psychiatric implications.
Burgoyne, K., R. Swartz, et al.
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Anxiety commonly associated with the acute porphyrias.

SOURCE:
The mental aspects of porphyria.
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychitric
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional and physical state of overwhelming
apprehension and fear.

During acute attacks psychiatric manifestations in acute porphyrias include
anxiety, and agitation. Mental confusion is commonly present.

SOURCE:
Rebecca Graunwald NP
Neuropsychiatric
+++++++++++++++++++++

SOURCE:
Porphyria: reexamination of psychiatric implications.
Burgoyne, K., R. Swartz, et al.
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Anxiety can be especially severe during acute attacks.

SOURCE:
"The Porphyrias"
Karl E. Anderson M.D.
HEPATOLOGY:
A Textbook of Liver Disease
W.B. Saunders Company
Philadephia 1996
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

When porphyria affects the central nervous system, (CNS) it can cause anxiety.

SOURCE:
Porphyria
NIDDK
NIH Publication No. 01-4632
February 2001
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Anxiety, insomnia, depression, disorientation, hallucinations and paranoia can
be especially severe during acute attacks.

SOURCE:
"The Porphyrias"
Karl E. Anderson M.D.
HEPATOLOGY:
A Textbook of Liver Disease
W.B. Saunders Company
Philadephia 1996
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS)is common during the acute
attack and is reflected in various mental symptoms such as anxiety.

SOURCE:
Acute Porphyrias: Pathogenesis of
Neurological Manifestations
Urs. A Meyers M.D. et. al.
Seminars in Liver Disease
Vol. 18, Number 1
January 1998

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Anxiety is related to disturbancesin the autonomoic control mechanisms,and is
commonly associated with acute porphyria and other medical conditions
involving the CNS.

SOURCE:
Vitamins and Minerals:
Healthy Diet & Safe Supplementation
Denise Mortimore
Element
2001
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Frequency


How common is anxiety in the acute porphyrias?

The commonest psychiatric diagnosis in acute porphyria patients is generalized
anxiety.

SOURCE:
Acta Psychiatric Scandinvia
1994 Apr;89(4):262-7
Acute intermittent porphyria and mental illness
Patience DA, Blackwood DH, McColl KE, Moore MR.
Department of Psychiatry,
University of Edinburgh,
Royal Edinburgh Hospital, United Kingdom.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Anxiety is related to disturbances in the autonomoic control mechanisms,
and is commonly associated with acute porphyria and other medical conditions
involving the CNS.

SOURCE:
Vitamins and Minerals:
Healthy Diet & Safe Supplementation
Denise Mortimore
Element
2001

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Characterization


Anxiety is characterized as chronic, exaggerated worry and tension.
Such anxiety is usually unfounded or much more severe than the normal anxiety
most people experience.

SOURCE:
he Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

The anxiety is an unpleasant emotional and physical state of overwhelming
apprehension and fear.

SOURCE:
Mental Health Resource
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
Rochester, Minnesota
2003
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Does anxiety affect women more than men?

Anxiety affects women more often than men.

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Anxiety is characterized chronic, exaggerated worry and tension.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Anxiety can be especially severe during acute attacks.

SOURCE:
"The Porphyrias"
Karl E. Anderson M.D.
HEPATOLOGY:
A Textbook of Liver Disease
W.B. Saunders Company
Philadephia 1996
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is common during the acute
attack and is reflected in various mental symptoms such as anxiety.

SOURCE:

Acute Porphyrias: Pathogenesis of
Neurological Manifestations
Urs. A Meyers M.D. et. al.
Seminars in Liver Disease
Vol. 18, Number 1
January 1998
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

The commonest psychiatric diagnosis in acute porphyria patients is generalized
anxiety

SOURCE:
Acta Psychiatric Scandinvia
1994 Apr;89(4):262-7
Acute intermittent porphyria and mental illness
Patience DA, Blackwood DH, McColl KE, Moore MR.
Department of Psychiatry,
University of Edinburgh,
Royal Edinburgh Hospital, United Kingdom.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Anxiety, insomnia, depression, disorientation, hallucinations and paranoia can
be especially severe during acute attacks.

SOURCE:
"The Porphyrias"
Karl E. Anderson M.D.
HEPATOLOGY:
A Textbook of Liver Disease
W.B. Saunders Company
Philadephia 1996
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Many people with anxiety also have physical symptoms, such as fatigue,
trembling, muscle tension, headaches,irritability or hot flashes.

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
++++++++++++++++++++++++

Anxiety for the most part associated with porphyria is usually unfounded.
SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Much of anxiety is usually unfounded or much more severe than the normal
anxiety most people experience.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Are patients with anxiety unable to relax?

Patients with anxiety are unable to relax and often suffer from insomnia.

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
What is the difference between feeling stressed and having an anxiety disorder?

An anxiety disorder remains after the immediate cause of the stress is gone.

SOURCE:
Victoria Kennedy, RN
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Anxiety disorder

An anxiety disorder remains after the immediate cause of Anxiety is often
present in acute porphyria.

SOURCE:
Psychiatric symptoms of inherited metabolic disease.
Estrov Y, Scaglia F, Bodamer OA.
Department of Psychiatry
University of California, San Diego
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
2000 Feb;23(1)
+++++++++++++++++++++
Anxiety is often present in acute porphyria.

SOURCE:
Psychiatric symptoms of inherited metabolic disease.
Estrov Y, Scaglia F, Bodamer OA.
Department of Psychiatry
University of California, San Diego
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
2000 Feb;23(1):2-6
+++++++++++++++++++++
When porphyria affects the nervous system, it can cause anxiety.

SOURCE:
Porphyria
NIDDK
NIH Publication No. 01-4632
February 2001
+++++++++++++++++++++
Depression

Research shows anxiety often coexists with depression, substance abuse, or
other anxiety disorders.

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
+++++++++++++++++++++
Depression has been clinically described in porphyria patients with anxiety
due to the CNS mental changes.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsyhchiatric
+++++++++++++++++++++
Insomnia due to anxiety

Can anxiety associated with acute porphyria cause insomnia?

Patients with anxiety are unable to relax and often suffer from insomnia.

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
SEE ALSO *******************PORPHYRIA FACTS: “DEPRESSION”
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Research shows anxiety often coexists with depression, substance abuse, or
other anxiety disorders.

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Trembling

Porphyria patients with anxiety will often experience fatigue, or trembling.

Muscle tension, and sometimes headaches, will also accompany anxiety. In
women irritability or hot flashes. often will occur when axious.

SOIURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Heaches can accompany anxiety during CNS changes in porphyria patients.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Insomnia often occurs in porphyria patients experiencing anxiety.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
SEE ALSO ************************* PORPHYRIA FACTS: INSOMNIA
**********************************************
:
Insomnia or headaches can occur along with the anxiety.

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++


What can a patient do to help distinguish with basic anxiety sypmtoms along
with their porphyria symptoms?

Porphyria patients should list their daily worries and symptoms and take them
with them to their doctor visits.

From such notes the ophysician can be fully informed what the patient is
experiencing and will be recognize various exacerbations in the patient.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Patients with physical symptoms such as insomnia or headaches should also tell
their doctors about their feelings of worry and tension.

This will help the patient's health care provider to recognize that the person is
suffering from anxiety..

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
+++++++++++++++++++++++++

Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is common during the acute
attack and is reflected in various mental symptoms such as anxiety.

SOURCE:
Acute Porphyrias: Pathogenesis of
Neurological Manifestations
Urs. A Meyers M.D. et. al.
Seminars in Liver Disease
Volume 18
+++++++++++++++++++++++++

Anxiety, can be especially severe during acute attacks.

SOURCE:
"The Porphyrias"
Karl E. Anderson M.D.
HEPATOLOGY:
A Textbook of Liver Disease
W.B. Saunders Company
Philadephia 1996
++++++++++++++++++++++++
Genetic anxiety?

Some research suggests that anxiety may run in families. .

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
+++++++++++++++++++++++++

Anxiety, can be especially severe during acute attacks.

SOURCE:
"The Porphyrias"
Karl E. Anderson M.D.
HEPATOLOGY:
A Textbook of Liver Disease
W.B. Saunders Company
Philadephia 1996
+++++++++++++++


Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is common during the acute
attack and is reflected in various mental symptoms such as anxiety.

SOURCE:
Acute Porphyrias: Pathogenesis of
Neurological Manifestations
Urs. A Meyers M.D. et. al.
Seminars in Liver Disease
Volume 18
January 1998
+++++++++++++++++

It's normal to be somewhat anxious about real stresses in your life. But
unfounded or excessive worry is not normal.

Persistent anxiety that affects your daily life is considered a medical problem.

Fortunately, it's a problem that can be treated.

SOURCE:
Suzanne Archibald LCSW
Neuropsychiatric
+++++++++++++++
Anxiety has a physical component.

When you feel anxious, your body releases hormones that prepare you to react
to a threat — the "fight-or-flight" response.

When anxiety gets out of control, this response can occur almost continually.

It can also occur during times of calm.

SOURCE:
Suzanne Archibald LCSW
Neuropsychiatric
++++++++++++++

Behavior therapy, a form of counseling, helps you change the behaviors and
thoughts that contribute to your anxiety. You can better understand your anxiety
triggers, develop coping skills and learn relaxation techniques. You may need
only a few sessions to begin feeling less anxious.

SOURCE:
Mayo Medical Education
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN
++++++++++++++
Medications are also highly effective treatments for anxiety, either alone
(frequently short term) or in combination with behavioral therapy.

Medications for anxiety have limited choices however for those with
porphyria, since many of the traditional choices for treatment are known
triggers of acute porphyria.

SOURCE:
Suzanne Archibald LCSW
Neuropsychiatric
++++++++++++
A buildup of stress may trigger anxiety.

Phsical and environmental triggers may combine to create anxiety.

Some personality types are more prone to anxiety disorders, and anxiety
disorders also tend to run in families.

SOURCE:
Mayo Medical Education
Mayo Clinic
+++++++++++++

Anxiety, insomnia, depression, disorientation, hallucinations and paranoia can
be especially severe during acute attacks.

SOURCE:
"The Porphyrias"
Karl E. Anderson M.D.
HEPATOLOGY:
A Textbook of Liver Disease
W.B. Saunders Company
Philadephia 1996
++++++++++
++++
Anxiety affects women more often than men.

SOURCE:

The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
++++++++++++

Research shows anxiety often coexists with depression.

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
+++++++++++++


The anxiety is an unpleasant emotional and physical state of overwhelming
apprehension and fear.

SOURCE:
Mental Health Resource
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
Rochester, Minnesota
2003
+++++++++++

Anxiety can be especially severe during acute attacks.


SOURCE:
"The Porphyrias"
Karl E. Anderson M.D.
HEPATOLOGY:
A Textbook of Liver Disease
W.B. Saunders Company
Philadephia 1996
++++++++++++++


There can be emotional and psychiatric problems such as anxiety.
.

SOURCE:
The Canadian Porphyria Foundation Inc.
Neepawa, Manitoba, Canada
+++++++++++++

Anxiety can be associated with acute attacks.

SOURCE:
Meditext Informational Systems
Disease Index
Porphyria
1999
+++++++++++++


Many people with anxiety also have physical symptoms, such as fatigue,
trembling, muscle tension, headaches, irritability or hot flashes.

SOURCE:
The Anxiety Disorders Education Program
National Institute of Mental Health
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
++++++++++++


During an attack of Harderoporphyria, a person may also experience mental
changes such as anxiety and hallucinations.

SOURCE:
Harderoporphyria
Disease Resource Book
Alliance Medical Systems
1998
+++++++++ +++

Anxiety is experienced by 40% of all acute porphyria patients.
SOURCE:
United Health Services
Medical Education Department
1999
++++++++++


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