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CHEMICAL TOXINS AS TRIGGERS OF PORPHYRIA
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Adlehydes
Alcohol
Aluminum
Arsenic
Benzene
Cadium
Chlordane
Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDDs)
Chlorine
Copper
Dioxins
Ethylene Glycol
Formaldehyde
Freons
Hexachlorobenzene
Idoine
Jet Fuels
Lead
Malathion
Mercury
Metal Dusts
Methanol
Methyl Parathion
Mold
PBBs & PBDEs
PBCs
Pharmaceuticals
Pyridine
Selenium
Styrene
Sulfites
Vinyl Chloride

PORPHYRIA FACTS - CHEMICAL TOXINS AS TRIGGERS

Certain chemicals have also been linked to porphyria or porphyrinuria in
humans, generally involving chronic industrial exposures or environmental
exposures much higher than those usually encountered.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposures and Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Karl E. Anderson, D. Montgomery Bissell, Joseph R. Bloomer, et. al.
++++++++++++++++++++

A number of chemicals, involving chronic industrial exposures induce
disturbances of heme synthesis, and have been linked to porphria or
porphyrinura in humans.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson M.D.
Internal Medicine
++++++++++++++++++++

Chemical toxins affect the body.

Fortunately, the body has mechanisms for transforming, eliminating or
compartmentalizing many toxic chemicals encountered over a lifetime.

However such 'safety' mechanisms may be inadequate or even inappropriate in
our modern industrialized society.

In porphyria patients this is especially true.

Individuals with poor nutritional habits, and others who are physiologically
stressed will most likely be affected by chemical toxins.

SOURCE:
Meta Metrix
Testing for Toxic Metals & CHemical-Induced Porphyrinuria
Verdon, Carl P. et. al.
1999
Norcross, Georgia
++++++++++++

Common Chemical Triggers in porphyria include chemicals in Perfume.

Other chemical toxins that can change heme synthesis include:

Gasoline
Diesel exhaust
Cleaning agents
Fabric softeners
Dryer sheets
Fabric Softener
Hairspray
Natural gas
Solvents
Paint
Formaldehyde
New carpet
Pesticides
Inks
Propane
Acetone
Anesthesia
Prescribed meds
Food additives
Food preservatives
Detergents
Nail polish
Marking pens
Carbonless paper
New car interiors
Charcoal smoke
Deodorized cat litter
Particleboard
Flexible plastics

SOURCE:
CIIN
1998
++++++++++





Chemicals are capable of inducing changes in heme synthesis with subsequent
overproduction and excessive excretion of heme precursors.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposure and
Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Willliam Daniell et. al.
+++++++++++

A number of chemicals, particularly metals and halogenated hydrocarbons,
induce disturbances of heme synthesis in experimental animals.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposures and Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Karl E. Anderson, et. al.
+++++++++++


Environmental porphyrogenic substances include paints, metal dusts and
fumes, alcohols, glycols and derivatives, vinyl chloride, arsenic, olychlorinated
biphenyls, dioxins, freons, chlorophenoxy acetic acids, hexachlorobenzene,
and others that continue to be identified.

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
+++++++++++

There is little question that individuals who are genetically predisposed to a
porphyria can have clinical manifestations of porphyria triggered by exogenous
chemicals.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical
Exposures and Disturbances of
Heme Synthesis
Karl E. Anderson,
D. Montgomery Bissell,
Joseph R. Bloomer, Ralph D.
Ellefson, Michael R. Moore,
Claus A. Pierach, William E.
Schreiber, Ayalew Tefferi
+++++++++

Chronic exposure to organic chemicals can have deleterious impact on the
body's biochemistry, resulting in decline of cellular function .

Such exposures can trigger severe acute attacks of porphyria.

SOURCE:
J. Alexander Bralley et. al.
MetaMetrix
Testing for Toxic Metals
+++++++++++

Exposure to some toxic substances can make you susceptible to peripheral
nerve damage.

These substances include heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and arsenic;
organic solvents; carbon monoxide and certain medications, especially those
used in chemotherapy."

SOURCE:
Mayo Health News
The Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MInnesota
+++++++++

Chronic exposure to organic chemicals such as herbicides, can have
deleterious impact on the body's biochemistry, resulting in decline of cellular
function .

Such exposures can trigger severe acute attacks of porphyria.

SOURCE:
J. Alexander Bralley et. al.
MetaMetrix
Testing for Toxic Metals
++++++++++++


Toxic chemicals, at any level of chronic exposure, affect human biochemistry.

For porphyria patients it is even more serious.

SOURCE:
Meta Metrix
Chemical-Induced Porphyrinuria
Verdon, Carl P. et. al.
1999
Norcross, Georgia
+++++++++++

Mineral pigments used in ceramics work have been known to trigger porphyria.

SOURCE:
Porphyria Resources
United Medical Services
1996
++++++++++

Fortunately, the body has mechanisms for transforming, eliminating or
compartmentalizing many toxic chemicals encountered over a lifetime.

However such 'safety' mechanisms may be inadequate or even inappropriate
in our modern industrialized society.

In porphyria patients this is especially true.

Individuals with poor nutritional habits, and others who are physiologically
stressed will most likely be affected.

SOURCE:
Meta Metrix
Testing for Toxic Metals &
Chemical-Induced Porphyrinuria
Verdon, Carl P. et. al.
1999
Norcross, Georgia
++++++++++++

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include paints, metal dusts and
fumes, alcohols, glycols and derivatives, vinyl chloride, arsenic, polychlorinated
biphenyls, dioxins, freons, chlorophenoxy acetic acids, hexachlorobenzene,
and others that continue to be identified.

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D
+++++++++++

Autoimmune type reactions have been shown in animal models.

Antinuclear antibodies have been induced by mercury as well as polygonal B
cells.

This autoimmune process results in monoclonal antibodies being produced.

Prolonged action of low mercury concentrations leads to changes in a number of
immunological indicators: Agglutinin titers, active leukocytes percent,
phagocytic number, complement activity, and the items described above.

Thus mercury compounds are immunomodulatory and the decrease in B-cell
function indicates toxicity.

SOURCE:
Heavy Metal Toxicity
Dr. Stephen B. Edelson M.D.
The Edelson Center for Environmental & Preventive Medicine
Atlanta, Georgia
+++++++++++

Environmental porphyrogenic substances identified as triggering porphyria
include paints, metal dusts and fumes, alcohols, glycols and polychlorinated
biphenyls, and many and others .

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
+++++++++++++


Glycol ethers are combustible or flammable and must be handled accordingly.

Fumes from combustion of glycol ethers are very toxic.

SOURCE:
Identified chemical toxins in environment
harmful to patients with metalbolic disease.
R. Lowell et. al.
Environmental Medicine
EI Quarterly Newsletter
April 1997
+++++++++++++

Glycol ethers are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and may be regulated in
your area.

They are known to be harmful to acute porphyria patients.

SOURCE:
Identified chemical toxins in environment
harmful to patients with metalbolic disease.
R. Lowell et. al.
Environmental Medicine
EI Quarterly Newsletter
April 1997
+++++++++++

A number of chemicals, particularly metals and halogenated hydrocarbons,
induce disturbances of heme synthesis in experimental animals.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposures and Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Karl E. Anderson, D. Montgomery Bissell,Joseph
R. Bloomer, Ralph D. Ellefson, Michael R. Moore,
Claus A. Pierach, William E. Schreiber,
Ayalew Tefferi
++++++++++++

Environmental porphyrogenic substances
identified as triggering porphyria include
hexachlorobenzene, and others that
continue to be identified."

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

Chronic exposure to toxic chemicals such as cadmium can have deleterious
impact on the body's biochemistry.

Porphyrin levels and distributions measured in urine serve as a biomarker -- a
diagnostic tool that indicates the toxicant's action.

SOURCE:
Testing for Toxic Metal- and
Chemical-Induced Porphyrinuria,
Carl P. Verdon, et. al.
++++++++++


Environmental porphyrogenic substances identified as triggering porphyria
include chlorophenoxy acetic acids.

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

Exposure to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons often results in Intoxification
Porphyria (IP).

SOURCE:
Porphyria Resources
United Medical Services
1996
++++++++++

Glycol ethers are another of the chemical toxins that are harmful to porphyria
patients and are a potential trigger of an acute porphyric attack.

SOURCE:
Identified chemical toxins in environment
harmful to patients with metabolic disease.
R. Lowell et. al.
Environmental Medicine
EI Quarterly Newsletter
April 1997
++++++++++

Smoking results in exposure to chemicals that induce cytochrome
P450 enzymes and heme synthesis.

SOURCE:
"The Porphyrias"
Karl E. Anderson
HEPATOLOGY:
A Textbook of Liver Disease
W.B. Saunders Company
Philadephia 1996
+++++++++

Many environmental factors include chemical toxins which may trigger porphyria.

Porphyria
NIDDK
NIH Publication No. 01-4632
February 2001
+++++++++

Chronic exposure to herbicides and pesticides, can have deleterious impact on
the body's biochemistry.

Porphyrin levels and distributions measured in urine serve as a biomarker -- a
diagnostic tool that indicates the toxicant's action.

SOURCE:
Testing for Toxic Metal- and Chemical-Induced Porphyrinuria,
Carl P. Verdon, et. al.
+++++++++

Always monitor your behavior.

Notice the food or activity choices that you make.

Record everything.

Then ask yourself if you could have opted for something healthier.

SOURCE:
Healthy Lifestyle
Lawrence C. Perlmuter
Department of PSychology
Finch University of Health Sciences
Chicago Medical School
+++++++++

Some specific environmental materials are known to be porphyrinogenic.

Such materials include:

Paint fumes, particularly expoxies [urethane, adhesive,
silicone,etc]
Metal dusts and fumes
Arsenic

Formaldehyde, other aldehydes which are commonly found in carpeting, drapery
and upholstery.

SOURCE:
Dr. William E. Morton MD
Oregon State Health University
Portland, Oregon
c 1991
++++++++++++++

Toxic chemicals, at any level of chronic exposure, affect human biochemistry.

SOURCE:
Meta Metrix
Testing for Toxic Metals Chemical-Induced Porphyrinuria
Verdon, Carl P. et. al.
1999
Norcross, Georgia
++++++++++

Polychlorinated phenyls (e.g. dioxin, PCB's) induce porphyrinuria.

SOURCE:
J. Alexander Bralley et. al.
MetaMetrix
Testing for Toxic Metals
++++++++++

Sulfites are converted to gas in the stomach and are then inhaled.

SOURCE:
Adventis
WAO
2000-2001
+++++++++

In addition to chemical exposure, exposure to ultraviolet and sometimes even
blue light can affect many forms of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Porphyria
Greek for "Purple Urine"
Orthomolecular Medicine
++++++++++

CHEMICAL TOXINS - ADLEHYDES


Aldehydes are considered chemical toxins and have been known to causes
various symptoms among chemical sensitive persons and to help in the
triggering of acute attacks among porphyria patients.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++++

The resins that are used in particle board and fibreboard are loaded with
aldehydes.

Such fibreboard is often used in the admissions area, business officew, and
ward clerical areas of a hospital or clinic.

SOURCE:
Reginald Perkins PhD
Toxicology
+++++++++++

While hospitals and clinic need to be comfortable and pleasing to the eye, new
carpet, thermal drapes, furnishings, artificial silk, all contain aldehydes.

The porphyria patient especially needs to be aware of the makeup and decor of
clinical and institutional settings as possible triggers of acute attacks.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++


In many of today modern clinical laboratories moulded plastics are used
exclusively.

Such moulded plastics or thermoplastics contain cellulose esters.

Not only are the building fixtures toxic, but the actual laboratories are filled with
aldehydes such as as a fixative for preservation of specimens and tissue
samples.

SOURCE:
Reginald Perkins PhD
Toxicology
+++++++++++

One place in medical complexes that has been found to be loaded with
aldehydes are the radiology departments.

Photography for hardening gelatin plates and papers, print flatting solution, hypo
test solution, hardeners and toners, all contain large amounts of aldehydes.

Often photo labs connected to radiology are interior and not well vented.

SOURCE:
Thomas E. Wilson
Formaldehyde Lethal for Chemically Sensitive
Letters
United Health Newsletter
++++++++++

Some vaccinations such as pertussis, flu vaccinations; synthesis of vitamin A, all
contain forms of aldehydes.

Aldehydes are also used in the manufacture of antibiotics; chelating agents,
and wart paint.

Contraceptives are full of aldehyde elements.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++++

Aldehydes are use in preserving and coagulating rubber latex. Vinyl gloves also
contain a considerable amount of aldehydes.

This often includes iv infusion tubing, wristbands, monitor cuffs, and gurney
strapping.

Aldehydes can be found in rayon, rayon-acetate blends, "wash and wear"
cotton, shrinkproof wool, polyester blends, artificial silk. Fabric conditioners,
softeners.

Unfortunately aldehydes are found in bed linen which is often used in hospitals.

SOURCE:
Thomas E. Wilson
Formaldehyde Lethal for Chemically Sensitive
Letters
United Health Newsletter
++++++++++

Aldehydes are also used in the manufacture of antibiotics; chelating agents,
and wart paint.

SOURCE:
Thomas E. Wilson
Formaldehyde Lethal for Chemically Sensitive
Letters
United Health Newsletter
++++++++++

Aldehydes are found in our medical establishments.

Aldehydes are triggers of some forms of porphyria and cause suffering among
the chemically sensitive.

SOURCE:
Thomas E. Wilson
Formaldehyde Lethal for Chemically Sensitive
Letters
United Health Newsletter
+++++++++++++++

Porphyria patients exposure to adlehydes will often complain of throat
constriction, pulmonary irritation and fuzzy vision.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++++

Symptoms of adlehyde exposure include the following:

Eye, nasal, throat, and pulmonary irritation, anemia, blurred vision.

There are also changes in higher cognitive functions, chemical sensitivity, chest
pains and tightness, colds, conjunctivitis, constipation, dizziness, difficulty
concentrating, dermatitis, diarrhea, disorientation, frequent urination with pain,
gastritis, gastrointestinal inflammation, headaches.

Pain is present. There can be joint pains, aches and swelling, and kidney
pain.

Because the liver is highly affected they may be jaundice.

Other signs and symptoms of adlehyde exposure include: loss of memory, loss
of sense of smell, loss of taste, menstrual and testicular pain, metallic taste,
muscle spasms and cramps, nasal congestion, retarded speech pattern, ringing
or tingling in the ear, short-term memory loss, shortness of breath, skin lesions,
sneezing, sore throat, spacey feeling, speaking difficulty, swollen glands,
tearing, thirst, vertigo, vomiting, wheezing, suspected of causing cancer, genetic
mutations, sterility, shock, schizophrenic-type symptoms, pneumonia, numbness
and tingling of the forearms and finger tips, pale, clammy skin, post nasal drip,
emotional upsets, acute sense of smell, fatigue, cardiac impairment, bronchitis,
palpitations, apathy, frequent urination with pain, flu-like symptoms, DEATH.

SOURCE:
"Chemical Exposure and Human Health"
Cynthia Wilson: CIIN Editor
Chemical Injury Network
++++++++++++

Memory loss can occur with chronic exposure to aldehydes.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric Medicine
+++++++++++

Aldehydes are known to trigger acute porphyrias.

Print shops are another major source of aldehydes which is formaldehyde.

Printing - etching materials for chrome printing and developing all contain
aldehydes.

SOURCE:
Thomas E. Wilson
Formaldehyde Lethal for Chemically Sensitive
United Health Newsletter
+++++++++++




Some specific environmental materials are known to be porphyrinogenic.

Such materials include:

Paint fumes, particularly expoxies [urethane, adhesive,
silicone,etc]
Metal dusts and fumes
Arsenic

Formaldehyde, other aldehydes which are commonly found in carpeting, drapery
and upholstery.

SOURCE:
Dr. William E. Morton MD
Oregon State Health University
Portland, Oregon
c 1991
++++++++++

Fibreboard is loaded with aldehydes isoften used in the admissions area,
business office, and ward clerical areas of a hospital or clinic.

SOURCE:
Thomas E. Wilson
Formaldehyde Lethal for Chemically Sensitive
Letters
United Health Newsletter
+++++++++++++

Fabric sizing resins for crease resistant clothes which make fibres wrinkle
resistant, water resistant, dye fast, flame resistant, shrink proof, moth proof and
more elastic, are loaded with aldehydes.

Aldehydes are formaldehyde, a long known substance to be avoided by
porphyria patients."

SOURCE:
Thomas E. Wilson
Formaldehyde Lethal for Chemically Sensitive
Letters
United Health Newsletter
+++++++++



CHEMICAL TOXINS - COPPER

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include copper.

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

Copper in studies has been shown to alter heme synthesis.

Copper is thought to be a trigger of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Bruce Silbernagel PhD
Toxicology & Biochemistry
++++++++++++

The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the
duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other
chemicals are present.

Copper is a reddish metal that occurs naturally in the environment. It also occurs
naturally in plants and animals.

Low levels of copper are essential for maintaining good health.

High levels can cause harmful effects such as irritation of the nose, mouth and
eyes, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach crumps, and nausea.

Copper is a reddish metal that occurs naturally in rocks, soil, water, and air.

Copper also occurs naturally in plants and animals.

Metallic copper can be easily molded or shaped.

Metallic copper can be found in the U.S. penny, electrical wiring, and some
water pipes.

Metallic copper is also found in mixtures (called alloys) with other metals such as
brass and bronze.

Copper is also found as part of other compounds forming salts.

Copper salts occur naturally, but are also manufactured.

The most common copper salt is copper sulfate.

Most copper compounds are blue-green in color.

Copper compounds are commonly used in agriculture to treat plant diseases like
mildew, for water treatment and, as preservatives for wood, leather, and fabrics.

Copper is among the metal dusts that are cited as substances that can change
heme synthesis.

A person can be exposed to copper through breathing air, drinking water, eating
food, and by skin contact with soil, water, or other copper-containing
substances.

Higher exposure may occur if your water is corrosive and you have copper
plumbing and brass water fixtures.

You may breathe copper-containing dust or have skin contact if you work in the
industry of mining copper or processing the ore.

You may breathe high levels if you grind or weld copper metal.

Copper is essential for good health, but high amounts can be harmful.

Long-term exposure to copper dust can irritate your nose, mouth, and eyes, and
cause headaches, dizziness, nausea, and diarrhea.

Drinking water with higher than normal levels of copper may cause vomiting,
diarrhea, stomach cramps, and nausea.

Intentionally high intakes of copper can cause liver and kidney damage and
even death.

SOURCE:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-29
Atlanta, GA 30333
+++++++++++

CHEMICAL TOXINS - ETHYLENE GLYCOL

Ethylene glycol is amongst those substances that have been deemed as triggers
of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++++
Ethylene glycol is considered a chemical toxin.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++++
Ethylene glycol intoxication is also known as ethylene glycol poisoning.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++++

Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting chemical found in many
household products, including: antifreeze, de-icing products, detergents, paints,
and even cosmetics.

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++


Ethylene glycol ingestion causes poisoning.

Ethylene glycol can cause severe eye irritation on contact.
SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++
Ethylene glycol may be ingested accidentally, or it may be consumed
deliberately in a suicide attempt or as a substitute for drinking alcohol (ethanol).

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++
The first effect of ethylene glycol ingestion is a sense of inebriation similar to the
feeling caused by drinking alcohol (ethanol).

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++
Within a few hours of ingestion of Ethylene glycol , the toxic effects are evident,
including: nausea, vomiting, convulsions, stupor, or even coma.

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++


Ethylene glycol can cause seizure activity.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++++


Many organs can be damaged by ethylene glycol toxicity, including: the brain,
heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, and muscles.

As little as 120 ml (approximately 4 fluid ounces) of ethylene glycol may be
enough to kill an average-sized man.



Ethylene gylcols can severely affect the liver.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++++


Ethylene glycol toxicity results when enzymes in the liver metabolize (break
down) ethylene glycol into smaller compounds, which deposit in body tissue and
cause damage.

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++
Small exposure to Ethylene glycol can remain in body fat for years and when a
peron is dieting or sweating, the fat releases the stores of Ethylene glycol into
the blood stream and can interrupt heme synthesis and possibly trigger acute
porphyria.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++++
These compounds also cause disturbances in the body's chemistry, including
metabolic acidosis, which is a buildup of acids in the blood.

The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ
failure, and death.

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++


Ethylene glycol toxicity should be suspected in anyone who is severely ill after
drinking an unknown substance, especially if they initially appear drunk without
the characteristic breath odor of drinking alcohol (ethanol).

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++
Diagnosis of ethylene glycol toxicity is usually made through a combination of
blood, urine, and other tests which may include:

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++



Blood tests will show elevated levels of ethylene glycol, as well as severe
metabolic acidosis and blood chemical disturbances.

Blood tests may also show signs of kidney failure and muscle or liver damage.

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++
Liver damage can occur in persons with ingestion of Ethylene glycol.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++++


Treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning is directed at supporting the body's vital
functions and removing ethylene glycol (and its toxic metabolic products) from
the body.

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++
If the ingestion of Ethylene glycol has occurred recently, suctioning of the
stomach contents may help to physically remove some of the ingested product.

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++
Activated charcoal may also be given.

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++
Activated charcoal has been beneficial in treating persons with ingested
Ethylene glycol.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++++


Most people with ethylene glycol toxicity will need to be admitted to the intensive
care unit for close monitoring, and may require mechanical ventilation (the
"respirator") and other advanced treatments. Intravenous sodium bicarbonate
solution is used to reverse severe acidosis.

SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++
If treated promptly, ethylene glycol toxicity has a fair outlook, and full recovery
from renal failure or even coma does occur. However, with delayed or no
treatment, ethylene glycol ingestion can certainly be fatal.


SOURCE:
Todd Severson, M.D.
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center
Philadelphia, PA.
++++++++++++


CHEMICAL TOXINS - MALATHION

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include malathion.

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

Malathion in studies has been shown to alter heme synthesis.

Malathion has been indicated to be a trigger of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Bruce Silbernagel PhD
Toxicology & Biochemistry
++++++++++++

Malthion is a pesticide.

Many of today's pesticides are triggers of porphyria exacerbations.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++++

The effects of exposure to any Malithion substance depends on the dose, the
duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other
chemicals are present.

The general population is probably not exposed to malathion regularly.

However, malathion is used to treat head lice on humans, to kill fleas on pets,
and to kill insects in gardens.

Exposure to malathion may also occur at farms where it has been sprayed on
crops.

Exposure to high amounts of malathion can cause difficulty breathing, chest
tightness, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, blurred vision, sweating, headaches,
dizziness, loss of consciousness, and possibly death.

Malathion is an insecticide that does not occur naturally.

Pure malathion is a colorless liquid, and technical-grade malathion, which
contains >90% malathion and impurities in a solvent, is a brownish-yellow liquid
that smells like garlic.

Malathion is used to kill insects on farm crops and in gardens, to treat lice on
humans, and to treat fleas on pets.

Malathion is also used to kill mosquitos and Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies)
in large outdoor areas.

Most people are not exposed to malathion in the air they breathe or on things
they touch, unless they live next to areas being sprayed.

Individuals may also be exposed by going into fields too soon after spraying.

Malathion interferes with the normal way that the nerves and brain function.

Exposure to very high levels of malathion for a short period in air, water, or food
may cause difficulty breathing, chest tightness, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea,
blurred vision, sweating, headaches, dizziness, loss of consciousness, and
death.

If persons who are exposed to high amounts of malathion are rapidly given
appropriate treatment, there may be no long-term harmful effects.

SOURCE:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-29
Atlanta, GA 30333
+++++++++++
********************************************

CHEMICAL TOXINS MERCURY

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include mercury

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

Mercury in studies has been shown to alter heme synthesis.

Meercury is tthought to be a trigger of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Bruce Silbernagel PhD
Toxicology & Biochemistry
++++++++++++

The effects of exposure to any mercury substance depend on the dose, the
duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other
chemicals are present.

Exposure to mercury occurs from breathing contaminated air, ingesting
contaminated water and food, and having dental and medical treatments.

Mercury, at high levels, may damage the brain, kidneys, and developing fetus.

Mercury is a naturally occurring metal which has several forms.

The metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid.

If heated, it is a colorless, odorless gas.

Mercury combines with other elements, such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen, to
form inorganic mercury compounds or "salts," which are usually white powders
or crystals.

Mercury also combines with carbon to make organic mercury compounds.

The most common one, methylmercury, is produced mainly by microscopic
organisms in the water and soil.

More mercury in the environment can increase the amounts of methylmercury
that these small organisms make.

Metallic mercury is used to produce chlorine gas and caustic soda, and is also
used in thermometers, dental fillings, and batteries.

Mercury salts are sometimes used in skin lightening creams and as antiseptic
creams and ointments.

Eating fish or shellfish contaminated with methylmercury is a primary way for
many people to have mercury expposure.

Release of mercury from dental work and medical treatments has been well
docmented in the last few years.
.
Breathing contaminated workplace air or skin contact during use in the
workplace (dental, health services, chemical, and other industries that use
mercury) is another source of exposure to mercury

The nervous system is very sensitive to all forms of mercury.

Methylmercury and metallic mercury vapors are more harmful than other forms,
because more mercury in these forms reaches the brain.

Exposure to high levels of metallic, inorganic, or organic mercury can
permanently damage the brain, kidneys, and developing fetus.

Effects on brain functioning may result in irritability, shyness, tremors, changes
in vision or hearing, and memory problems.

Short-term exposure to high levels of metallic mercury vapors may cause effects
including lung damage, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increases in blood pressure
or heart rate, skin rashes, and eye irritation.

SOURCE:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-29
Atlanta, GA 30333
+++++++++++
************************************
CHEMICAL TOXINS - METAL DUSTS

Environmental porphyrogenic substances identified as triggering porphyria
include metal dusts and fumes and others that continue to be identified.


SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
+++++++++

Different metal dusts have been identified as trigger porphyria.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++

It has been demonstrated that a number of metals are porphyrinogenic.

Included in studies is that of aluminum.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposure and
Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Willliam Daniell et. al.
++++++++++++++

Some environmental materials are known to be porphyrinogenic.

Such materials include:

Paint fumes, particularly expoxies [urethane, adhesive, silicone,etc]
Metal dusts and fumes
Arsenic
Vinyl chloride fumes and dusts
Alcohols, particularly ethanol
Glycols, glycol ethers [Organic solvents, antifreeze etc.]
Freons
Polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]
Tetrachloro dibenzodioxins [TCDCs]
Chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicides
Hexachlorobenzene [Pesticide]
Formaldehyde, other aldehydes [Found in carpeting]
Heavy vehicle exhaust fumes
Perfumes, other fragrances
Chlorine, chlorinated cleaning agents
Possibly any chlorinated cleaning agents
Possibly any chlorinated hydrocarbon

Anything that triggers porphyria symptoms

Addendum list:
Majority of pesticides, rodentcides, fungicides, herbicides
Tobacco

SOURCE:
Dr. William E. Morton MD
Oregon State Health University
Portland, Oregon
c 1991
++++++++++


Exposure to some toxic substances can make you susceptible to peripheral
nerve damage.

These substances include heavy metals.
SOURCE:
Mayo Health News
The Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MInnesota
+++++++++

In experimental studies it has been demonstrated that a number of metals are
porphyrinogenic.

These include aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, and gallium arsenide.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposure and Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Willliam Daniell et. al.
+++++++++

Exposure to aluminum has been identified as a metal that is porphyrinogenic.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Mewdicine
+++++++++

Exposure to Heavy metals is often the trigger for Intoxification Porphyria (IP).

SOURCE:
Porphyria Resources
United Medical Services
1996
+++++++++

Some specific environmental materials are known to be porphyrinogenic.

Such materials include:

Paint fumes, particularly expoxies [urethane, adhesive, silicone,etc]

Metal dusts and fumes

Arsenic

Formaldehyde, other aldehydes which are commonly found in carpeting, drapery
and upholstery.

SOURCE:
Dr. William E. Morton MD
Oregon State Health University
Portland, Oregon
c 1991
+++++++++++++



Chronic exposure to toxic chemicals such as cadmium can have deleterious
impact on the body's biochemistry.

Porphyrin levels and distributions measured in urine serve as a biomarker -- a
diagnostic tool that indicates the toxicant's action.

SOURCE:
Testing for Toxic Metal- and
Chemical-Induced Porphyrinuria,
Carl P. Verdon, et. al.
++++++++++

Cadmium exposure is known to be a trigger of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++

Certain metal dusts are capable of inducing changes in heme synthesis with
subsequent overproduction and excessive excretion of heme precursors.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposure and
Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Willliam Daniell et. al.
+++++++++++

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include metal dusts.
SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D
+++++++++++++

In the acute hepatic porphyria exposure to chemical toxins can and do trigger
acute attacks including various metal dusts.

SOURCE:
The Porphyrias
Dr. Mark G. Perlroth
CIIN
+++++++

A study of practicing dentists reported correlations between elevated urinary
5-carboxyporphyrin, precoproporphyrin, coproporphyrin and behavioral
changes that were related to urinary excretion of mercury.


Together, elevations of these porphyrins served as biomarkers of mercury
toxicity.

SOURCE:
Meta Metrix
Testing for Toxic Metals & Chemical-Induced Porphyrinuria
Verdon, Carl P. et. al.
1999
+++++++++++++

In experimental studies it has been demonstrated that a number of metals are
porphyrinogenic.

These include cobalt, in addition to many others.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposure and
Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Willliam Daniell et. al.
+++++++++++

Certain chemicals have also been linked to porphyria or porphyrinuria in
humans, generally involving chronic industrial exposures or environmental
exposures much higher than those usually encountered.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposures and Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Karl E. Anderson, D. Montgomery Bissell,Joseph
R. Bloomer, Ralph D. Ellefson, Michael R. Moore,
Claus A. Pierach, William E. Schreiber,
Ayalew Tefferi
+++++++++

Chronic exposure to toxic chemicals such as arsenic, can have deleterious
impact on the body's biochemistry.

Porphyrin levels anddistributions measured in urine serve as a biomarker -- a
diagnostic tool that indicates the toxicant's action.

SOURCE:
Testing for Toxic Metal- and
Chemical-Induced Porphyrinuria,
Carl P. Verdon, et. al.
++++++++++

Some of the inherited porphyrias occur commonly as toxicogenetic conditions,
where the genetically acquired trait is clinically latent until clinical
manifestations of porphyria are triggered idiosyncratically by exposure
to certain therapeutic drugs, chemicals, or alcohol.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposures and Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Claus Pierach M.D. et. al.
Department of Medicine
University of Minnesota School of Medicine
Abbott Northwestern Hospital
Minneapolis, Minnesota
++++++++++

Glycol ethers are organic solvents.

Such ethers are detrimental to patients with various genetic and metabolic
diseases (porphyria).

SOURCE:
Identified chemical toxins in environment harmful to patients with metalbolic
disease.
R. Lowell et. al.
Environmental Medicine
EI Quarterly Newsletter
April 1997
+++++++++++



CHEMICAL TOXINS - METHANOL EXPOSURE

Toxic chemicals, at any level of chronic exposure, affect human biochemistry.

Individuals with poor nutritional habits, and others who are physiologically
stressed will most likely be affected by chemical toxins.

For porphyria patients this is especially true.

SOURCE:
Meta Metrix
Testing for Toxic Metals & CHemical-Induced Porphyrinuria
Verdon, Carl P. et. al.
1999
Norcross, Georgia
++++++++++++++++++


Methanol exposure can trigger attacks of acute porphyria.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++++

Methanol is another name for wood alcohol or methyl alcohol.

SOURCE:
CIIN
0024-GOET-85-014
+++++++++++++

There is little question that individuals who are genetically predisposed to
porphyria can have clinical manifestations of porphyria triggered by exogenous
chemicals.

Most of the experience with such chemical triggering of porphyria has involved
alcohol consumption and pharmacological doses of drugs.

However, other chemical exposures have also been reported to trigger
porphyrias with neurologic manifestations as well as those with only cutaneous
manifestation--PCT in particular.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposures and Disturbances of
Heme Synthesis
Karl E. Anderson, D. Montgomery Bissell, Joseph R. Bloomer, Ralph D. Ellefson,
Michael R. Moore, Claus A. Pierach, William E. Schreiber, Ayalew Tefferi
++++++++++++++++++++++

Methanol is a common household solvent used in a wide variety of products.

Methanol can be found in perfume, windscreen washing liquid, duplicating fluid,
antifreeze, shellac, paint remover.

Methanol is also added to commercial glutaraldehyde for shipping.

SOURCE:
CIIN
0024-GOET-85-014
++++++++++++

Methanol exposure causes the same symptomology as exposure to
formaldehyde in porphyria patients.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++++++

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include paints, metal dusts and fumes,
alcohols, glycols and derivatives, vinyl chloride, arsenic, polychlorinated
biphenyls, dioxins, freons, chlorophenoxy acetic acids, hexachlorobenzene, and
others that continue to be identified.

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
+++++++++++++

Methanol occurs naturally in fruit and vegetables along with ethanol (alcohol).

SOURCE:
Sheryl WIlson MNS RD
++++++++++++

Methanol metabolizes in the body to formaldehyde, then to formic acid, and then
to substances which can be eliminated - including carbon dioxide and water.

SOURCE:
Henry Briggs PhD
Toxicology
++++++++++++

The oxidation products of Methanol or Methyl Alcohol uses the formula of [ie
methanol > formaldehyde > formic acid].

This formula may induce severe acidosis.

The amount causing severe effects varies with the individual especially if ethyl
alcohol (ethanol) is consumed at the same time.

SOURCE:
Henry Briggs PhD
Toxicology
++++++++++++

Symptoms of xposure to methanol can involve the visual apparatus (severe
degenerative changes occur within the ganglion cells of the retina; the toxicity of
methanol appears to relate directly to formic acid), the CNS, and the
gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.

SOURCE:
Henry Briggs PhD
Toxicology
++++++++++++

Acidosis can occur after exposure to methanol.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
++++++++++++

Clinical toxicity of methanol relates to acidosis as well as the effects of
accumulation of toxic products: nausea, vomiting, generalised weakness, severe
abdominal pain, vertigo, headache.

Symptoms of methanol exposure are similar to ethyl alcoholism can appear
including restlessness, and incoordination.

SOURCE:
Henry Briggs PhD
Toxicology
++++++++++++



Confusion and memory defects are common in methanol exposure.

SOURCE:

CIIN

0024-GOET-85-014
+++++++++++++++

Inhaling the fumes of methanol can cause headache, eye irritation, dizziness,
visual disturbances and nausea.

SOURCE:
CIIN
0024-GOET-85-014
+++++++++++++++

Exposure to methanol causes damages to the liver, heart, kidneys, and lungs.

SOURCE:
CIIN
0024-GOET-85-014
+++++++++++++++

CHEMICAL TOXINS - METHYL PARATHION
Environmental porphyrogenic substances include Methyl Parathion

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

Methyl Parathion in studies has been shown to alter heme synthesis.

Methyl Parathion is tthought to be a trigger of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Bruce Silbernagel PhD
Toxicology & Biochemistry
++++++++++++

The effects of exposure to any Methyl Parathion substance depend on the dose,
the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other
chemicals are present.

The general population is probably not exposed to methyl parathion.

However, exposure to methyl parathion may occur at farms where it has been
used as a pesticide.

Under certain exposure conditions, methyl parathion can affect the central
nervous system resulting in dizziness, headache, difficulty breathing, vomiting,
diarrhea, tremors, blurred vision, sweating, and possibly death.

Methyl parathion is an insecticide that does not occur naturally in the
environment.

Pure methyl parathion exists as white crystals. Impure methyl parathion is a
brownish liquid that smells like rotten eggs.

Methyl parathion is used to kill insects on farm crops, especially cotton.

The EPA now restricts how methyl parathion can be used and applied.

Methyl parathion can no longer be used on food crops commonly consumed by
children.

Methyl parathion enters the environment primarily through spraying on farm
crops.

Most people are not exposed to methyl parathion in the air they breathe or on
things they touch, unless they live next to areas being sprayed.

People who live near farms where methyl parathion is used or near landfills
where methyl parathion has been dumped may be exposed.

Individuals may also be exposed by going into fields too soon after spraying.

Methyl parathion interferes with the normal way that the nerves and brain
function.

Exposure to very high levels of methyl parathion for a short period in air or water
may cause death, loss of consciousness, dizziness, confusion, headaches,
difficult breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps,
tremors, blurred vision, and sweating.

Changes in mental state may last several months after exposure to high levels
of methyl parathion has ended.

A reduced ability to fight infections has also been seen in some animal studies.

SOURCE:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-29
Atlanta, GA 30333
+++++++++++
*************************************
CHEMICAL TOXINS - PBBs AND PBDEs

Polybrominated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include PBBs AND PBDEs

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

PBBs AND PBDEs in studies has been shown to alter heme synthesis.

PBBs AND PBDEs are tthought to be a trigger of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Bruce Silbernagel PhD
Toxicology & Biochemistry
++++++++++++

Polybrominated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers are the full
names for PBBs AND PBDEs.

The effects of exposure to any PBBs AND PBDEs substance depend on the
dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and
whether other chemicals are present.

Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)
are manmade chemicals found in plastics used in a variety of consumer products
to make them difficult to burn.

Some people who ate food contaminated with PBBs in the 1970s had skin
problems.

PBBs and PBDEs are manufactured chemicals found in plastics used in a variety
of consumer products (computer monitors, televisions, textiles, plastic foams,
etc.) to make them difficult to burn.

Because they are mixed into plastics rather than bound to them, they can leave
the plastic and find their way into the environment. PBBs and PBDEs are similar,
but not identical compounds.

Both are colorless to off-white solids.

Both PBBs and PBDEs are mixtures of up to 209 individual component
chemicals called congeners.

The manufacture of PBBs was discontinued in the United States in 1976, while
production of PBDEs has continued to the present.

Trade names of some commercial PBB mixtures include FireMaster BP-6 and
FireMaster FF-1. Trade names of some PBDE commercial mixtures include
Bromkal 70-5DE, Tardex 50L, and Saytex 115.


Some PBDEs in water can build up in fish.

Low levels of PBDEs are found in air, sediments, animals, and food.

Exposure to PBDEs can also occur if you work in a confined place where
plastics and foam products are recycled, and computers are repaired.

Most of what we know about the health effects of PPBs in people comes from
studies of people in Michigan who ate PBB-contaminated animal products for
several months.

Some residents complained of nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, joint
pain, fatigue, and weakness.

There is stronger evidence that PBBs may have caused skin problems, such as
acne, in some people who ate contaminated food.

Some workers exposed to PBBs by breathing and skin contact for days to
months also developed acne.

Studies in animals exposed to large amounts of PBBs for a short time or to
smaller amounts for longer time show that PBBs can cause weight loss, skin
disorders, nervous and immune systems effects, and effects on the liver,
kidneys, and thyroid gland.

Rats and mice that ate food with moderate amounts of PBDEs for a few days
had effects on the thyroid gland.

Those that ate smaller amounts for weeks or months had effects on the thyroid
and the liver.

Preliminary evidence suggests that PBDEs may cause neurobehavioral
alterations and affect the immune system in animals.

SOURCE:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-29
Atlanta, GA 30333
+++++++++++
**************************************
CHEMICAL TOXINS - PCB’s
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include Polychlorinated Biphenyls
(PCBs)

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in studies has been shown to alter heme
synthesis.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to be a trigger of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Bruce Silbernagel PhD
Toxicology & Biochemistry
++++++++++++


Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the
duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other
chemicals are present.


Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a mixture of individual chemicals which
are no longer produced in the United States, but are still found in the
environment.

Health effects that have been associated with exposure to PCBs include
acne-like skin conditions in adults and neurobehavioral and immunological
changes in children.

PCBs are known to cause cancer in animals.

PCBs have been found in at least 500 of the 1,598 National Priorities List sites
identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Polychlorinated biphenyls are mixtures of up to 209 individual chlorinated
compounds (known as congeners).

There are no known natural sources of PCBs. PCBs are either oily liquids or
solids that are colorless to light yellow. Some PCBs can exist as a vapor in air.
PCBs have no known smell or taste.

Many commercial PCB mixtures are known in the U.S. by the trade name
Aroclor.

PCBs have been used as coolants and lubricants in transformers, capacitors,
and other electrical equipment because they don't burn easily and are good
insulators.

The manufacture of PCBs was stopped in the U.S. in 1977 because of evidence
they build up in the environment and can cause harmful health effects.

Products made before 1977 that may contain PCBs include old fluorescent
lighting fixtures and electrical devices containing PCB capacitors, and old
microscope and hydraulic oils.

PCBs entered the air, water, and soil during their manufacture, use, and
disposal; from accidental spills and leaks during their transport; and from leaks
or fires in products containing PCBs.

PCBs can still be released to the environment from hazardous waste sites;
illegal or improper disposal of industrial wastes and consumer products; leaks
from old electrical transformers containing PCBs; and burning of some wastes in
incinerators.

PCBs do not readily break down in the environment and thus may remain there
for very long periods of time.

PCBs can travel long distances in the air and be deposited in areas far away
from where they were released.

In water, a small amount of PCBs may remain dissolved, but most stick to
organic particles and bottom sediments. PCBs also bind strongly to soil.

PCBs are taken up by small organisms and fish in water.

They are also taken up by other animals that eat these aquatic animals as food.
PCBs accumulate in fish and marine mammals, reaching levels that may be
many thousands of times higher than in water.

PCBs do not readily break down in the environment and thus may remain there
for very long periods of time.

PCBs can travel long distances in the air and be deposited in areas far away
from where they were released.

In water, a small amount of PCBs may remain dissolved, but most stick to
organic particles and bottom sediments. PCBs also bind strongly to soil.

PCBs are taken up by small organisms and fish in water.

They are also taken up by other animals that eat these aquatic animals as food.
PCBs accumulate in fish and marine mammals, reaching levels that may be
many thousands of times higher than in water.


The most commonly observed health effects in people exposed to large amounts
of PCBs are skin conditions such as acne and rashes.

Studies in exposed workers have shown changes in blood and urine that may
indicate liver damage.

PCB exposures in the general population are not likely to result in skin and liver
effects.

Most of the studies of health effects of PCBs in the general population examined
children of mothers who were exposed to PCBs.

Animals that ate food containing large amounts of PCBs for short periods of time
had mild liver damage and some died.

Animals that ate smaller amounts of PCBs in food over several weeks or months
developed various kinds of health effects, including anemia; acne-like skin
conditions; and liver, stomach, and thyroid gland injuries.

Other effects of PCBs in animals include changes in the immune system,
behavioral alterations, and impaired reproduction. PCBs are not known to cause
birth defects.

SOURCE:
Regina Matthias PhD
Toxicology & Biochemistry
++++++++++++
***********************************
CHEMICAL TOXINS -PHARMACEUTICALS


Prescription drugs is the chief cause of inducing heme synthesis in acute
porphyria patients.


SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++

70% of acute attacks of porphyria are related to ingestion of many common
drugs.

These drugs are usually drugs which induce hepatic microsomal enzymes.

SOURCE:
Smoking and recurrent attacks of AIP
McColl, Kenneth et. al.
British Medical Journal
Vol. 302 March 2, 1991
++++++++++

Acute attacks of AIP, HCP and VP usually are provoked by medications.

SOURCE:
Porphyria Resources
United Medical Services
1996
+++++++++

In the acute porphyrias commonly used drugs can precipitate an illness

Updated drug lists of safe and unsafe drugs are an essential reference.

SOURCE:
The Porphyrias
Alana Adams RPH
Welsh Drug Information Center
Cardiff, Wales, U.K.
+++++++++++

Barbiturates and antibacterials including the sulfonamides, are among the best
known triggers of acute porphyria.

SOURCE:
Porphyria Resources
United Medical Services
1996
+++++++++

In the acute porphyrias commonly used drugs can precipitate an illness

SOURCE:
The Porphyrias
Alana Adams RPH
Welsh Drug Information Center
Cardiff, Wales, U.K.
+++++++++++

Up-to-dateUNSAFE DRUG LISTS are essential to all porphyria patients and
their care givers and medical care providers.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++

Updated drug lists of safe and unsafe drugs are an essential reference.

SOURCE:
The Porphyrias
Alana Adams RPH
Welsh Drug Information Center
Cardiff, Wales, U.K.
+++++++++++


Factors that can trigger porphyria include certain chemicals and therapeutic
drugs.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposure and Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Willliam Daniell et. al
+++++++++

Hepatic heme metabolism is increased by endogenous sex steroid production.

This accounts for the most usual late onset of the hepatic porphyrias until after
puberty.

SOURCE:
METABOLIC LIVER DISEASE
Neville R. Pimstone, MD
Porhyria Specialist
University of California Medical School
Davis, California
++++++++++

Most of the experience with chemicals triggering porphyria has involved
alcohol consumption and pharmacological doses of drugs.

SOURCE:
Environmental Chemical Exposures and Disturbances of Heme Synthesis
Karl E. Anderson,
D. Montgomery Bissell,
Joseph R. Bloomer, Ralph D.
Ellefson, Michael R. Moore,
Claus A. Pierach, William E.
Schreiber, AyalewTefferi
++++++++++++

Oestrogens can be triggering factors in chronic hepatic porphyrias..

SOURCE:
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
2000 Nov;23(7):641-61
Erythropoietic and hepatic porphyrias.
Gross U, Hoffmann GF, Doss MO.
Division of Clinical Biochemistry
Faculty of Medicine,
PhilippsUniversity, Marburg, Germany
++++++++++

The most common drugs triggering acute attacks porphyria are sulfonamides
and barbiturates often seen when give Phenobarbital for pain relief with dental
surgery."

SOURCE:
Lifelines:
Journal of Emergency Medicine
October 1998
123: 437-443
Emergency Treatment of the Porphyric Patient
Kirsch, N,.E., M.D.

+++++++++++

In 30 per cent of patients, precipitating factors are unclear but may include
infections, alcohol, weight loss, calorie restriction, smoking and endogenous
hormone changes.

SOURCE:
The Porphyrias
Alana Adams RPH
Welsh Drug Information Center
Cardiff, Wales, U.K.
+++++++++

Certain food products containing soy need to be avoided in one's daily diet
because soy is a natural estrogen.

Estrogen or other hormonal containing products have been known to trigger
acute attacks of porphyria.

Large amounts can stimulate heme and porphyrin synthesis which thus trigger
attacks.

SOURCE:
Nutritional Guidelines For People With Porphyria
AIP Medical Guide
Sheryl Wilson, [HCP], MSN, RD
+++++++++++

Fasting or dieting is not permitted in people who have porphyria,

SOURCE:
Nutritional Guidelines For People With Porphyria
AIP Medical Guide
Sheryl Wilson, [HCP], MSN, RD
+++++++++++
***********************************************

CHEMICAL TOXINS - PYRIDINE

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include pyridine.

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

Pyridine in studies has been shown to alter heme synthesis.

Pyridine is tthought to be a trigger of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Bruce Silbernagel PhD
Toxicology & Biochemistry
++++++++++++

The effects of exposure to any Pyridine substance depend on the dose, the
duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other
chemicals are present.

Everyone is exposed to very low levels of pyridine in air, water, and food.

Workers who make or use the chemical may be exposed to higher levels of it.

Studies in people and animals suggest that pyridine may damage the liver.

Pyridine is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant smell. It can be made from
crude coal tar or from other chemicals.

Pyridine is used to dissolve other substances.

It is also used to make many different products such as medicines, vitamins,
food flavorings, paints, dyes, rubber products, adhesives, insecticides, and
herbicides.

Pyridine can also be formed from the breakdown of many natural materials in the
environment.

Everyone is exposed to very low levels of pyridine in air, water, and food.

People may breathe pyridine when it is released into the air from burning
cigarettes and from hot coffee.

Very little information is available on the health effects of pyridine.

Animal studies and some limited case reports in people have noted liver damage
from exposure to pyridine.

Patients have clinical findings of damage to the liver and kidneys after ingesting
some pyridine.

Headaches, giddiness, a desire to sleep, quickening of the pulse, and rapid
breathing occurred in adults who breathed an unknown amount of pyridine for an
unknown length of time.

Mild skin irritation and eye irritation were seen in rabbits when pyridine was
placed on their skin or in their eyes.


SOURCE:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-29
Atlanta, GA 30333
+++++++++++
*********************************************
CHEMICAL TOXINS - SELENIUM

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include selenium.

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

Selenium in studies has been shown to alter heme synthesis.

Selenium is tthought to be a trigger of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Bruce Silbernagel PhD
Toxicology & Biochemistry
++++++++++++

The effects of exposure to any selenium substance depend on the dose, the
duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other
chemicals are present.

People may be exposed to low levels of selenium daily through food and water.

Selenium functions as an antioxidant and is needed for good health, but
exposure to high levels can result in neurological effects and brittle hair and
deformed nails.

Occupational inhalation exposure may cause dizziness, fatigue, irritation of
mucous membranes, and respiratory effects.

Selenium is a naturally occurring mineral element that is distributed widely in
nature in most rocks and soils.

In its pure form, it exists as metallic gray to black hexagonal crystals, but in
nature it is usually combined with sulfide minerals or with silver, copper, lead,
and nickel minerals.

Most processed selenium is used in the electronics industry, but it is also used:
as a nutritional supplement; in the glass industry; as a component of pigments in
plastics, paints, enamels, inks, and rubber; in the preparation of
pharmaceuticals; as a nutritional feed additive for poultry and livestock; in
pesticide formulations; in rubber production; as an ingredient in antidandruff
shampoos; and as a constituent of fungicides.

Radioactive selenium is used in diagnostic medicine.

The general population is exposed to very low levels of selenium in air, food,
and water.

People living in the vicinity of hazardous waste sites or coal burning plants may
also be exposed to higher levels of selenium.

Selenium has both beneficial and harmful effects.

Low doses of selenium are needed to maintain good health.

However, exposure to high levels can cause adverse health effects.

Short-term oral exposure to high concentrations of selenium may cause nausea,
vomiting, and diarrhea.

Chronic oral exposure to high concentrations of selenium compounds can
produce a disease called selenosis.

The major signs of selenosis are hair loss, nail brittleness, and neurological
abnormalities (such as numbness and other odd sensations in the extremities).

Brief exposures to high levels of elemental selenium or selenium dioxide in air
can result in respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, difficulty breathing, and
stomach pains.

Longer-term exposure to either of these air-borne forms can cause respiratory
irritation, bronchial spasms, and coughing.

Levels of these forms of selenium that would be necessary to produce such
effects are normally not seen outside of the workplace.

SOURCE:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-29
Atlanta, GA 30333
+++++++++++
**************************************************
CHEMICAL TOXINS - STYRENE

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include styrene.

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia
1995
Dr. William E. Morton M.D.
++++++++++++

Styrene in studies has been shown to alter heme synthesis.

Styrene is thought to be a trigger of porphyria.

SOURCE:
Bruce Silbernagel PhD
Toxicology & Biochemistry
++++++++++++

The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the
duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other
chemicals are present.

Exposure to styrene is most likely to occur from breathing indoor air that is
contaminated with styrene vapors from building materials, tobacco smoke, and
consumer products.

People who work where styrene is used or manufactured are likely to be
exposed by breathing workplace air.

Breathing styrene is most likely to affect the nervous system.

Styrene is primarily a synthetic chemical.

It is also known as vinylbenzene, ethenylbenzene, cinnamene, or
phenylethylene.

It's a colorless liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell. It often
contains other chemicals that give it a sharp, unpleasant smell.

It dissolves in some liquids but doesn't dissolve easily in water.

Billions of pounds are produced each year to make products such as rubber,
plastic, insulation, fiberglass, pipes, automobile parts, food containers, and
carpet backing.

Most of these products contain styrene linked together in a long chain
(polystyrene) as well as unlinked styrene.

Low levels of styrene also occur naturally in a variety of foods such as fruits,
vegetables, nuts, beverages, and meats.

Smoking cigarettes or eating a lot of food packaged in polystyrene containers
can expose a person to styrene.

If you breathe high levels of styrene for a short time, you're most likely to
experience nervous system effects such as depression, concentration problems,
muscle weakness, tiredness, and nausea, and possibly eye, nose, and throat
irritation.

Long-term exposure can damage the liver.

Animal studies show that ingestion of high levels of styrene over several weeks
can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, brain, and lungs.

When styrene was applied to the skin of rabbits, it caused irritation.

In animal studies, short-term exposure to very high levels resulted in some
reproductive and developmental effects.

SOURCE:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-29
Atlanta, GA 30333
+++++++++++
*********************************************
CHEMICAL TOXINS: SULFITES


FDA GUIDE TO FOODS AND DRUGS WITH SULFITES

The following foods and drugs may contain sulfites, according to the Food and
Drug Administration.

Not all manufacturers use sulfites in these products, and the amounts may vary.
Remember to check the product label.

Food Category Type of Food

Alcoholic Beverages
Beer, cocktail mixes, wine, wine coolers.

Baked Goods
Cookies, crackers, mixes with dried fruits or vegetables, pie crust, pizza crust,
quiche crust, flour tortillas.

Beverage Bases
Dried citrus fruit beverage mixes.

Condiments and Relishes
Horseradish, onion and pickle relishes, pickles, olives, salad dressing mixes,
wine vinegar.

Confections and Frostings
Brown, raw, powdered or white sugar derived from sugar beets.

Modified Dairy Products
Filled milk (a specially prepared skim milk in which vegetable oils, rather than
animal fats, are added to increase its fat content).

Drugs
Antiemetics (taken to prevent nausea), cardiovascular drugs, antibiotics,
tranquilizers, intravenous muscle relaxants, analgesics (painkillers),
anesthetics, steroids and nebulized bronchodilator solutions (used for treatment
of asthma).

Fish and Shellfish
Canned clams; fresh, frozen, canned or dried shrimp; frozen lobster;
scallops; dried cod.

Fresh Fruit and Vegetables
Sulfite use banned (except for fresh potatoes).

Gelatins, Puddings

Fruit fillings, flavored and and Fillings unflavored gelatin, pectin jelling agents.

Grain Products and Pastas
Cornstarch, modified food starch, spinach pasta, gravies,

Jams and Jellies
Jams and jellies.

Nuts and Nut Products
Shredded coconut.

Plant Protein Products
Soy protein.

Processed Fruits
Canned, bottled or frozen fruit juices (including lemon, lime, grape and apple);
dried fruit;canned, bottled or frozen dietetic fruit or fruit juices; maraschino
cherries and glazed fruit.

Processed Vegetables
Vegetable juice, canned vegetables (including potatoes),
pickled vegetables (including sauerkraut), dried vegetables, instant
mashed potatoes, frozen potatoes and potato salad.

Snack Foods
Dried fruit snacks, trail mixes, filled crackers.

Soups and Soup Mixes
Canned seafood soups, dried soup mixes.

Sweet Sauces, Toppings
Corn syrup, maple syrup, fruit toppings, and Syrups high-fructose corn syrup,
pancake syrup.Tea Instant tea, liquid tea concentrates.

SOURCE:
US FDA
+++++++++




Products That Contain Sulfites

Sulfites can occur naturally in foods or are added to enhance food products.

Sulfites are made naturally during the fermentation of wine.

There is a variety of foods that contain sulfites. Some of them include baked
goods, soup mixes, jams, canned vegetables, pickled foods, gravies, dried fruit,
potato chips, trail mix, beer, wine, vegetable juices, bottled lemon juice, bottled
lime juice, tea, condiments, molasses, fresh or frozen shrimp, guacamole,
maraschino cherries, and dehydrated, pre-cut, or peeled potatoes.


Government Regulations

Scientists have not pinpointed the smallest concentration of sulfites needed to
trigger a reaction in a sulfite-sensitive person.

Because many reactions have been reported, the FDA requires the presence of
sulfites in processed foods to be declared on the label.

That is, sulfites used specifically as preservatives must be listed on the label,
regardless of the amount in the finished product. Be aware, some items are
exempt from the labeling laws.

When in doubt about a product, contact the manufacturer.

Manufacturers and processors must disclose the presence of sulfiting agents on
the label if it contains concentrations of at least 10 parts per million (PPM).

Unfortuneately, concentrations lower than 10 PPM have triggered attacks.

FDA prohibits the use of sulfites on fresh produce intended to be sold or served
raw to consumers, and because sulfites destroy thiamin (vitamin B1), the FDA
also prohibits the use of sulfites in foods that are important sources of this
nutrient, such as enriched flour.

Preservatives that contain sulfites are prohibited on meats because they restore
the red color, giving meat a false appearance of freshness.

Avoidance





Reading labels is the best way to avoid sulfites in foods.

When eating out, be sure to check with the restaurant to make sure they do not
use sulfites in preparing the food.

Sulfites are often used in preparing potato dishes to keep them from discoloring.
Since bottled lemon juice contains sodium bisulfite, make sure only fresh
lemons are used in preparing your food.

Treatment

Asthma sufferers should always carry an inhaler when dining out. Also, if a
reaction to sulfites has happened before, carry an antihistamine and a
self-administering injectable epinephrine.

What to Do If You Are Sulfite-Sensitive

"By law, adverse reactions to drugs must be reported to FDA by doctors or
pharmaceutical companies.

But with sulfites and other food ingredients, reporting is voluntary so it's difficult
to say just how many people may be at risk," cautions the FDA

Many people do not seek medical treatment when they suffer from this disorder,
therefore statistics are incomplete.

If you experience any adverse reaction from eating a food that contains sulfites,
be sure to report the circumstances and your reaction to the FDA district office in
your area.

Also send your report in writing
to:

Adverse Reaction Monitoring
System (HFS-636)
200 C St., S.W.
Washington, DC 20204


SOURCE:
US FDA



AVOIDING CORN SYRUP IN FOODS & MEDICINES

Some problematic foods

Some foods necessarily contain corn or corn products and some necessarily
don't.

The great majority of foods lie in between, and there's the problem.

Always read the labels.

And remember that the processing of corn syrups is known to contain sulfites.


applesauce
Most applesauce is sweetened, and corn syrup is the sweetener of choice.



aspirin and other medications
Nearly every solid or liquid medication that I've checked contains corn starch or
corn syrup.

The only corn-free analgesics I found has been Adult Strength Liquid Tylenol
and Alka-Seltzer.

Excedrin (which has caffeine) and Empirin are both free of corn products.

Sudafed is made with potato starch, but some formulations also have corn
starch. One that, is Sudafed Plus.

Benadryl is available in liquid forms free from corn products.

baby formula
Most baby formulas contain a substantial amount of corn syrup.





bread and baked goods
Commercially baked bread is almost certain to contain corn products.
Pita bread (if it's reasonably authentic) is the only likely exception.

Donuts are almost certain to have corn products in glaze, coating sugar, filling,
or batter.

breakfast cereals
Nearly everything in the cereal aisle is either made of corn or sweetened with
corn syrup.

Chinese food
Corn starch is the standard thickener for Chinese sauces.

cold cuts
Cold cuts (cooked ham, turkey, roast beef, bologna, pastrami, corned beef, and
the like) are often treated with dextrose, corn syrup, food starch, or caramel
coloring.

fast food
Fast food is a complete disaster if you're allergic to corn syrup.

Soft drinks, cheap ice cream, and frozen yogurt. Margarine, salad dressings, and
ketchup are all dangerous.



soft drinks
All of the major soft drinks (i.e., everything made by Coca-Cola or Pepsi) are
sweetened with corn syrup or Nutrasweet.



+++++++++++++++++

Which of the sulfur and sulfite containing products or exposure should acute
porphyria patients take concern?

Sulfur dioxide
Sodium sulfite
Sodium bisulfite
Sodium metabisulfite
Potassium metabisulfite

SOURCE:
Bernard Yeager PhD
Toxicology
+++++++++++++++


Sulfur dioxide is produced commercially by burning sulfur or various
sulfides or by recovering it from flue gases or non-ferrous metal smelting gases.

Large quantities are used as intermediates in the manufacture of
sulfuric acid and sulfite pulp.

Sulfur dioxide is also used in the food and beverage industries as, among other
things, a biocide and a preservative.


Both sodium and potassium metabisulfure are used in food processing, chemical
industries,water treatment, photoprocessing and the textile industry.



A Canadian population-based case-control study has suggested an increased
risk for stomach cancer in persons exposed to sulfur dioxide.

Sulfur dioxide and bisulfite have induced gene mutation but not
gene conversion in yeast.

Sulfur dioxide, sulfites, bisulfites and metabisulfites are not classifiable
as to their carcinogenicity to humans .

Synonyms for Sulfur dioxide

* Sulfurous acid anhydride
* Sulfurous anhydride
* Sulfurous oxide
* Sulfur oxide [SO2]
* Sulphur dioxide
* Sulfur superoxide
Synonyms for Sodium sulfite

* Anhydrous sodium sulfite
* Disodium sulfite
* Sodium sulphite
* Sulfurous acid, disodium salt

Synonyms for Sodium bisulfite

* Hydrogen sulfite sodium
* Monosodium sulfite
* Sodium acid sulfite
* Sodium bisulphite
* Sodium hydrogen sulfite
* Sodium sulfite [NaHSO3]
* Sulfurous acid, monosodium salt

Synonyms for Sodium metabisulfite

* Disodium disulfite
* Disodium metabisulfite
* Disodium pyrosulfite
* Disulfurous acid, disodium salt
* Pyrosulfurous acid, disodium salt
* Sodium disulfite
* Sodium metabisulphite
* Sodium pyrosulfite

Synonyms for Potassium metabisulfite

* Dipotassium disulfite
* Dipotassium metabisulfite
* Dipotassium pyrosulfite
* Disulfurous acid, dipotassium salt
* Potassium disulfite
* Potassium metabisulfite
* Potassium pyrosulfite
* Pyrosulfurous acid, dipotassium salt
++++++++++++++++++++++
*************************
CHEMICAL TOXINS - VINYL CHLORIDE

Environmental porphyrogenic substances include vinyl chloride

SOURCE:
Susceptibility to Environmental Chemicals
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste
Atlanta Georgia

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