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PORPHYRIA FACTS: PSYCHIATRIC - CONFUSION


Confusion

Confusion is a disturbed orientation in regard to time, place or person,
sometimes accompanied by disordered consciousness.

Confusion often presents during onset of an acute attack of porphyria.
Also termed as mental change.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric
++++++++++++++

Confusion is commonly associated with the mental change that occurs in acute
hepatic porphyria during times of acute attacks.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric Medicine
++++++++++

Confusion is sometimes referred to as mental dysfunction, disorientation, or an
encephalopathy.

SOURCE:
Galit Kleiner-Fisman MD, FRCPC
Department of Neurology
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
+++++++++++


Confusion is an inability to think with customary speed or clarity, marked by
some degree of lack of focus of attention and disorientation.

SOURCE:
Galit Kleiner-Fisman MD, FRCPC
Department of Neurology
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
+++++++++++


Many porphyria patients find that they are unable to make decisions during times
of confusion during acute attacks.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric Medicine
++++++++++
Confusion is generally characterized by bewilderment, lack of attention, and
inability to make decisions.

SOURCE:
Galit Kleiner-Fisman MD, FRCPC
Department of Neurology
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
+++++++++++


Some confused people may behave aggressively or display bizarre behavior.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric Medicine
++++++++++
Low blood sugar which often accompanies some types of porphyria, is known to
be a cause of confusion.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++
Confusion in many PCT patients has been associated with the use of alcohol.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++



During acute attacks with vomiting and/or diarrhea, fluid and electrolyte
imbalances will often be the direct cause of mental confusion.

Once the electrolytes have returned into normal levels the confusion will go into
remission.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
+++++++++



Confusion can sometimes be due to nutritional deficiencies.

Such deficiences causing confusion usually are niacin deficiency.

Other nutirion deficiences may include thiamine deficiency, Vitamin C
deficiency, or Vitamin B-12 deficiency.

SOURCE:
Sheryl Wilson MNS, RD (HCP)
+++++++++++

Heavy metal poisoning or methanol intoxication can cause confusion.

SOURCE:
Robert Johnson MD
Internal Medicine
++++++++++

Drugs, such as atropine, chloroquine, cimetidine, CNS depressants in large
doses, cycloserine, digitalis medicines -- oral, indomethacin, lidocaine,
withdrawal from narcotics and barbiturates.

SOURCE:
Galit Kleiner-Fisman MD, FRCPC
Department of Neurology
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
+++++++++++


A confused person should not be left alone.

In order to ensure a confused person's safety, physical restraints may be
required in some situations.

A calm, quiet, and peaceful environment is recommended.

SOURCE:
Galit Kleiner-Fisman MD, FRCPC
Department of Neurology
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
+++++++++++


For sudden confusion due to low blood sugar, drink a sweet drink or eat a sweet
snack. If the confusion lasts longer than 10 minutes, call the doctor.



SOURCE:
Galit Kleiner-Fisman MD, FRCPC
Department of Neurology
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
+++++++++++


What are the common causes of confusion?


Low blood sugar; and Fluid and electrolyte imbalanceare common causes of
confusion.

Other causes include: Nutritional deficiencies, particularly niacin deficiency,
thiamine deficiency, Vitamin C deficiency, or Vitamin B-12 deficiency, seizures,
alcohol intoication, or environmental causes

SOURCE:
Galit Kleiner-Fisman MD, FRCPC,
Department of Neurology
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
+++++++++++++++++++

Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is common during the acute
attack and is reflected in various mental symptoms such as confusion.


SOURCE:
Acute Porphyrias: Pathogenesis of
Neurological Manifestations
Urs. A Meyers M.D. et. al.
Seminars in Liver Disease
Vol. 18, Number 1
January 1998
++++++++++++++++++++

Confusion is generally characterized by bewilderment, lack of attention, and
inability to make decisions.

It is often referred to as "brain fog".

SOURCE:
Galit Kleiner-Fisman MD, FRCPC,
Department of Neurology
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
+++++++++++++++++++

During periods of psychosis in porphyria the patient can display disorganized
thought and/or speech.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric
+++++++++++++

Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is common during the acute
attack and is reflected in various mental symptoms such as confusion.

SOURCE:
Acute Porphyrias: Pathogenesis of
Neurological Manifestations
Urs. A Meyers M.D. et. al.
Seminars in Liver Disease
Vol. 18, Number 1
January 1998
+++++++++++++++++++

Confusion or decreased alertness may be the first symptom of an acute attack of
porphyria.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric
++++++++++

Confusion, can be associated with acute attacks.

SOURCE:
Meditext Informational Systems
Disease Index
Porphyria
1999
++++++++++++

Delirium is a sudden change in how well a person's brain is working (mental
status).

Delirium can cause confusion, disruption of the sleep-wake cycles, and unusual
behavior.

SOURCE:
Dr. Kenneth Carlson
Neuropsychiatric
++++++++++

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